Modern wiring - what should it be
Where to begin
The first step is to replace the aluminum wire with copper. Since aluminum becomes brittle over time, and the insulation on such conductors is destroyed, these factors lead to the loss of electricity in the apartment or to spontaneous ignition in emergency areas. In addition, the copper conductor has a lower internal resistance compared to the same of aluminum. That is, a copper wire is able to pass more current through itself, which means it can supply a more powerful load.
It should be borne in mind that for lighting you need to take a wire of a smaller cross-section of 1-1.5 mm, to power outlets choose a wire of 2.5 mm, and to connect an electric oven and an oven you will have to choose a cross-section of 4-6 mm.
By the way, by combining wires in this way, you can save money when purchasing material. It is best to take a cable for electrical wiring copper - VVGngsingle core in non-burning insulation. If the budget allows, you can take NYM cableThis conductor is made according to German technology, has double insulation, which does not support combustion and smoke. Important properties of these cables - they do not support combustion, which is very important for the safety of modern housing.
Before proceeding with wiring replacement, you must draw up a wiring diagram. It will take into account the nuances and the number of sockets, lamps, switches, sensors, and their place in the apartment. Cable television, Internet and telephone cable are also part of the wiring. At the same time, when designing a smart home, it is also necessary to provide communication wires with all possible alarm sensors, in particular their relative position.
Important! A modern wiring diagram is compiled in a special program, which can be either paid or free. The best programs for drawing electrical circuits were reviewed by us in a separate publication to which we referred.
For convenience in the repair or maintenance of electrical wiring, you need to distribute the lines among consumer groups and protect each with a separate machine. In simple words, put not one wire over the entire apartment, as they did before, but in each room stretch the cables from the shield, one to the sockets (from 2.5 square meters.mm) and one for lighting. Connect the sockets in the room according to the star scheme. Therefore, in the dashboard of a modern cottage, you can see several automatic machines for lighting, sockets, a separate circuit breaker for electric stoves, household buildings, etc. About, how to divide wiring into groupswe told.
Important: If three phases enter the house, distribute the load in phasesas evenly as possible.
Modern apartment and house protection
The electrical panel also undergoes changes in the installation of modern wiring. Now the house electrical network is divided into zones and protection is installed on each of the zones:
- voltage relay;
- circuit breaker (to protect consumers from short circuits);
- spark protection device;
- differential switch or RCD (devices that monitor the state of insulation on the line, and disconnect the voltage when the insulation resistance changes).
Many electrical appliances do not tolerate power surges and not even significant voltage drops can cause significant damage in the form of burned household appliances. To combat this destructive phenomenon, devices have been developed that control the magnitude of the voltage. When changing the parameters, the voltage relay disconnects consumers, thereby protecting their performance. According to the set voltage parameters, the relay constantly measures the external voltage of the network. In case of a deviation (usually the default is 170 Volts lower, and 250 upper voltage thresholds), the entire network is disconnected after the LV. After a few minutes, the device re-monitors the voltage parameters and, if everything is in order, makes a connection. Thus, the device helps to avoid electrical breakdowns and spontaneous fires. For a city apartment, a relay with a switching power of 40 Amps - PH40 is quite suitable.
If suddenly in the home network happens short circuit (random connection of the phase and zero conductor), the current in the conductor increases hundreds of times. At this point, the conductor warms up to a state of melting, which in most cases can lead to the ignition of objects nearby, and damage to electrical devices. To prevent a short circuit, circuit breakers are installed in the power circuit, which respond to a sharp surge in current, and break the circuit with their contacts. This is not a device that you should save on when designing modern electrical wiring. Before you purchase any brand of machine, you need to read the reviews about this manufacturer. In this case, the seller himself needs to ask for a certificate of production. This will protect against the acquisition of fake or substandard.
In turn, our portal recommends brands of circuit breakers ABB, Schneider Electric, Legrand.
Before installing the machine, it is necessary to determine the load. As a rule, an automatic switch from 16 to 25 Amperes is installed on the sockets, and 6-10 Amperes is enough for lighting. You can save if you correctly calculate the consumer current in the outlet group and purchase the necessary machines. The fact is that automatic machines of trusted manufacturers in different positions significantly differ in price.
In order to control the isolation state of the network and consumers, it is imperative to install an RCD or a difavtomat in each of the monitored zones in the shield. The principle of operation of such devices is based on a comparison of two currents, incoming and outgoing, in a special transformer. If current leak If it doesn’t happen through isolation to the ground, but through the human body, when it touches live parts, the RCD will disconnect the voltage, preserving his life. For rooms, as a rule, an RCD with a nominal value of 30 mA (milliamps) is installed, and for bathrooms or rooms of high humidity 10 mA. The total RCD in the shield, for the whole house or cottage, is set at a nominal value of 100 to 300 mA.
Quality control device junction boxes and the state of contacts in sockets and extension cords that prevent overheating in places of poor contact and possible spontaneous fires - ultrasound. The spark protection device will disconnect the load until the arc and heat damage the wiring. Why it is necessary to install an ultrasonic scanning device - neither an automatic machine, nor a differential switch, nor even a voltage relay, are able to recognize arc and spark processes in places of poor contact. That is why modern wiring in a wooden house involves the installation of protection against sparking. In an apartment and an ordinary brick house, you can also play it safe and install this protection option.
Do not do without grounding
When collecting an apartment shield, use a grounding circuit TN-C-S instead of an obsolete two-wire TT. An additional PE conductor appears in the new system - grounding, now three conductors should come to the consumer: L phase, N zero, PE ground. Each appliance with a special PE terminal must be earthed. If there is no grounding in your house or apartment, then this circuit is not difficult to make with your own hands. In a series of articles on the site, the design of the ground loop for self-installation was discussed in detail. All you need is to study the section: https://my.electricianexp.com/en/elektroprovodka/zazemlenie-i-molniezashhita.
What else is important to know - it is forbidden to produce grounding in the apartments of the old housing stock. Those. use an additional zero N (without upgrading the entire house wiring) as a PE ground wire. The reason for this is that in the event of an accident (a zero wire breakage on the floor below), the wire acquires dangerous potential and objects connected to such a conductor can be shocked. In such cases, it is better not to connect the PE conductor anywhere until better times, until the home network is upgraded.
What else you need to know
For reliable contact, modern wiring is assembled as a designer on spring contacts WAGO terminal blocks. Their use reduces the wiring time. However, keep in mind - you can use “vagi” in cases where the load is small, i.e. when connecting outlets to power low-power devices and lighting groups. At high loads, we recommend using more reliable methods of connecting current-carrying conductors, for example, crimping with sleeves or welding.
As for sockets, smart ones appeared on the market Wi-Fi sockets and the same in principle, remotely controlled Wifi light switches. With their help, you can control electrical appliances and lighting in the house from different places. This is smart wiring, which can be easily done to anyone who has an interest.
Another important point is the smart lighting in the house, which can be organized using radio-controlled chandeliers, or as an option - smart led bulbs. Speaking of the latter, smart bulbs can amplify the Wi-Fi signal, turn on and off according to a given schedule (making the effect of human presence), change the color and level of illumination. In general, having a smartphone at hand, you can play with color and light while lying on the couch.
Speaking about modern methods of wiring, in recent years more and more practiced laying the cable on the ceiling and vice versa in the floor. These methods have their advantages and disadvantages, but the main thing is that the alternative to the classic cable routing inside the walls is developing more and more. Do not want to ditch the walls - you can just lay the cable inside the suspended or suspended ceiling. The main thing is to make the connection points of the veins available for inspection and repair.
This is all we wanted to tell you about what modern wiring in an apartment and a private house is like.As you can see, there are a lot of new chips, and most importantly - more and more attention is paid to the safety and comfort of operating electrical appliances in the house. We hope the information provided was interesting to you. Editorial office Elecroexpert will be happy to answer all your questions in the comments!
Finally, we recommend watching a useful video that details what electrical wiring is in a modern apartment: