Marks of aluminum wires and cables and their applications
Advantages and disadvantages of aluminum
Aluminum cable products have their advantages and disadvantages, on the basis of which there is a choice of material for specific tasks.
- Price. The cost of the cable plays a decisive role in large production volumes. However, it should be borne in mind that if an aluminum cable is significantly cheaper than a copper one with a similar cross section, then when comparing copper and aluminum with different cross sections, but with a comparable allowable current load, the difference in cost is not so significant.
- Weight. An aluminum cable weighs about half as much as a copper one, so you need half as many supports when laying aluminum overhead lines. This reduces line construction costs.
- Fluidity. Most aluminum cables and wires are made of soft alloys, and this adversely affects the quality of the contact. During operation, contacts with aluminum deteriorate (especially on twists and screw clamps) and must be pulled periodically. This is due to its fluidity.
- Oxidation. When an aluminum conductor is used in a humid environment and in air, it oxidizes. In this process, the surface of the core is covered with an oxide film, after which the oxidative processes stop. Because the resulting film impedes their development. On the one hand, this way aluminum protects itself from complete rotting, and on the other hand, the oxide film does not conduct current. Therefore, the contact first begins to heat up intensely, as it increases transition resistance, and then completely disappears.
- Fragility. Most of the aluminum wires break, it is worth bending them several times. This leads to problems, both at the stage of installation of the electrical installation, and during the maintenance process, for example, when replacing sockets and other electrical equipment.
However, some of the disadvantages, such as fluidity, depend on the specific manufacturer and brand of products, as various alloys are used in this area.
Grades of aluminum wires
SIP - self-supporting insulated wire. It is used in overhead power lines with voltage up to 35 kV. Number of cores - from 1 to 4.The marking looks like this: "SIP 1, SIP 2" and so on. If the letter “A” is present after the number, then the zero core is isolated, if not, then zero without insulation. The cores are coated with UV-resistant polyethylene. From marking, the number of cores and their design can vary. A distinctive feature of the SIP 3 brand is that it is a single-core steel-aluminum wire.
АПВ - aluminum wire with a monolithic insulated core, produced in the cross-sectional range from 2.5 to 16 square meters. mm Used for the assembly of electrical circuits, panels and cabinets, can be used for the assembly of lighting fixtures. Products of this brand are laid in walls, pipes, trays. Designed for voltages up to 1000 V 50 Hz. Insulation material - PVC compound.
A - bare wire, used on overhead power lines. Wires consist of thin wires twisted into a so-called coiling. The cross section range is 16-750 square meters. mm
AC - non-insulated wire, differs from the previous one only in the presence of a steel core, which makes it more rigid and resistant to mechanical stress.
Grades of aluminum cable
AVVG - with aluminum conductors and double vinyl insulation. Perhaps one of the most common types of cables. It is used in networks of 0.66 / 1 kV with an alternating current frequency of 50 Hz. Available in the cross-sectional range from 2.5 to 240 square meters. mm With the number of cores from 2 to 4. It is used for stationary connection of electrical equipment to the mains, can be used in rooms with difficult conditions, for example, partially flooded, with high humidity or explosive. It can be used as a conductor for power wiring is actually actively used in 0.4 kV networks. It is also used for wiring in residential buildings, suitable for connecting outlets and in production.
AVBBSHV - with aluminum conductors and tape armor PVC insulation of each core and a layer of hermetic insulation, or rather PVC-hose outside. The number of cores is from 1 to 5, and their cross section is from 2.5 square meters. mm up to 240 sq. mm Rated voltages - 0.66-1 kV and 50 Hz AC frequency. It can be used for wiring and connecting electrical installations to the mains in difficult conditions, as well as with the possibility of mechanical damage, in explosion and fire hazardous areas. Including for outdoor installation and underground, for example, to enter a power cable into the house. Armor from two tapes allows you to lay a line without additional protection from rodents. With sections over 6 square meters. mm insulation is reinforced with a layer of cross-linked polyethylene and a cover of bitumen.
ASBL - armored with steel tapes, as well as in a lead sheath. The number of cores from 1 to 4, their cross section lies in the range of 16-800 square meters. mm It is used for work in electrical installations with voltage up to 10 kV. Depending on the flexibility class and the cross-sectional area, the conductive conductors can be either single-wire (monolithic, in the catalogs they can be abbreviated as “ОЖ”) or multi-wire. The cores are covered with paper insulation, enclosed in a screen of electrically conductive paper. They are enclosed in a lead casing, and the pillow is made of bitumen, crepe paper and PVC film. It can be used for laying in soil with low and medium corrosive activity.
APvPug - armored for lines with voltage up to 6-10 kV with a frequency of 50 Hz. Type of armor - steel tape. Insulation - cross-linked polyethylene. Designed for laying in the ground: trenches and soil, regardless of the degree of corrosive activity. Therefore it is tight, protected from moisture. It can be used for overhead lines, and in the case of ensuring proper fire protection (applying fireproof coatings) in buildings. The range of sections is from 50 to 800 square meters. mm, multiwire veins. In addition to the cable there is a screen of copper wire with a cross section of 16-35 square meters. mm fastened with copper tape.Materials allow laying it even in water bodies of navigable and non-navigable ones, provided that the probability of mechanical damage to the cable is excluded.
AABl - armored, for laying in networks of 1-10 kV. The cores can be single-wire or multi-wire, insulated with impregnated paper, on top of which a belt insulation of semiconducting paper is placed. It is all enclosed in an aluminum shell and armor from two steel bands. Allowable voltages are indicated in the marking, for example AABl 1 - 1 kV, AABl 6 - 6 kV, AABl 10 - 10 kV, respectively. The cross-sectional range is 50-240 sq. mm It can be used in any terrain from temperate to cold climates. This type of cable cannot be used for laying vertical sections of lines; there is a special one with non-leaking impregnation of CAABL-10. In the soil, this brand can be laid with low corrosion activity.
AAShv - with paper insulation of aluminum cores coated with a layer of general vinyl insulation. It is used in networks up to 10 kV (or up to 6 kV, depending on the specific version of the product). The cores can be single-core (marking “ОЖ” or “ОК”) and multi-wire (marking “mk”, “ms”, “mzh”). When laying one cable, the insulation does not spread combustion. Impregnation of paper insulation is carried out in such a viscous composition that it does not leak out, and when connecting the cable, air inclusions are not formed in the couplings. The screen is made of conductive paper. The number of cores is from 1 to 4, and the range of their cross sections lies within 50-800 square meters. mm
In conclusion, I would like to note that recently they are increasingly saying that aluminum will return to domestic wiring. The real reason for this is difficult to name. Manufacturers are positioning new cables made of non-flowing hard alloys, as well as the development of aluminum cables coated with a layer of copper. Skeptics claim that this is Rusal’s attempt to increase revenue from the sale of its products. In any case, the types and brands of aluminum wires and cables need to know in order to use them correctly.